The broad spectral coverage provided by JWST will permit the characterization of the formation and evolution of global dust storms and cloud systems over volcanoes, while NIRSpec’s spectral resolution will permit the search for trace photochemical species and isotopic compounds. JWST will permit instantaneous measurements of the whole observable disk at very high-spatial resolutions, allowing for the investigation of transient events near the day/night terminator, diurnal (East-West) and seasonal (North-South) phenomena, and the rapid vaporization of polar ices and of other volatile reservoirs.

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